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Malaria control interventions protect against malaria parasitemia, severe anemia and all-cause mortality in children less than five years of age in Malawi, 2000–2010

by on December 4, 2017

Malaria control interventions protect against malaria parasitemia, severe anemia and all-cause mortality in children less than five years of age in Malawi, 2000–2010Malaria control intervention coverage increased nationwide in Malawi during 2000–2010. Trends in intervention coverage were assessed against trends in malaria parasite prevalence, severe anemia (hemoglobin < 8 g/dL), and all-cause mortality in children under 5 years of age (ACCM) using nationally representative household surveys. Associations between insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership, malaria morbidity, and ACCM were also assessed.

Household ITN ownership increased from 27.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 25.9–29.0) in 2004 to 56.8% (95% CI = 55.6–58.1) in 2010. Similarly intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy coverage increased from 28.2% (95% CI = 26.7–29.8) in 2000 to 55.0% (95% CI = 53.4–56.6) in 2010. Malaria parasite prevalence decreased significantly from 60.5% (95% CI = 53.0–68.0) in 2001 to 20.4% (95% CI = 15.7–25.1) in 2009 in children aged 6–35 months. Severe anemia prevalence decreased from 20.4% (95% CI: 17.3–24.0) in 2004 to 13.1% (95% CI = 11.0–15.4) in 2010 in children aged 6–23 months. ACCM decreased 41%, from 188.6 deaths per 1,000 live births (95% CI = 179.1–198.0) during 1996–2000, to 112.1 deaths per 1,000 live births (95% CI = 105.8–118.5) during 2006–2010. When controlling for other covariates in random effects logistic regression models, household ITN ownership was protective against malaria parasitemia in children (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72–0.92) and severe anemia (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.72–0.94). After considering the magnitude of changes in malaria intervention coverage and nonmalaria factors, and given the contribution of malaria to all-cause mortality in malaria-endemic countries, the substantial increase in malaria control interventions likely improved child survival in Malawi during 2000–2010.

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From → Malaria, Resource

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