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Seven Steps to EnGendering Public Health Evaluations: Training Instructions

Seven Steps to EnGendering Public Health Evaluations: Training InstructionsBecause international development increasingly focuses on gender, evaluators need a better understanding of how to measure and incorporate gender—including its economic, social, and health dimensions—in their evaluations. This interactive training, consisting of a presentation and this tool, will help participants learn to better evaluate programs with gender components.

This tool is to be used with the associated training presentation, “Seven Steps to EnGendering Evaluations of Public Health Programs.” It provides instructions for carrying out the training, including suggested group activities.

Monitoring Outcomes of PEPFAR Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programs in Kenya: Round 2

Monitoring outcomes of PEPFAR OVC Kenya MEval-min
In 2014, the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) introduced the monitoring, evaluation, and reporting (MER) essential survey indicators (ESIs) to help track changes over time in the well-being of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) project beneficiaries and their households.

In 2018, the OVC team of PEPFAR in Kenya requested assistance from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the USAID- and PEPFAR-funded MEASURE Evaluation project to conduct three panel studies and one cross-sectional survey for three ongoing PEPFAR OVC projects in western Kenya: Making Well-Informed Efforts to Nurture Disadvantaged Orphans & Vulnerable Children (MWENDO), a USAID-funded project of Catholic Relief Services; the Timiza 90 project of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); and the Walter Reed Program/Henry M. Jackson Foundation Medical Research International (WRP/HJFMRI) HIV project funded by the United States Department of Defense. This was the second round of data collection. MEASURE Evaluation completed the first round in 2016. One of the implementing partners whose beneficiaries were assessed in 2016 was AIDS, Population and Health Integrated Assistance Plus Program, Western Kenya (APHIAplus). APHIAplus has since ended, and its beneficiaries now receive services from the MWENDO project.

In the three panel studies (one for each project) the same beneficiary households who were interviewed in 2016 were again interviewed. The main objective for the repeat survey was to evaluate the progress of the OVC projects over the two-year period. In addition, an independent cross-sectional survey (conducted for MWENDO only) was designed to provide a snapshot of the current status of MWENDO beneficiaries in areas not included in the 2016 survey. Fieldwork for the surveys was undertaken in October and November 2018.

These materials present our findings.

Improving GEND_GBV Data Quality to Enhance PEPFAR Program Performance

Improving GEND_GBV Data Quality to Enhance PEPFAR Program PerformanceGender-based violence (GBV) is a key driver of the HIV epidemic. Preventing and responding to GBV is essential to meeting PEPFAR’s 95-95-95 goals. High-quality GBV data are vital to decision making to improve GBV and HIV programs. This job aid focuses on improving GEND_GBV data quality to enhance PEPFAR program performance.

To access the GEND_GBV Rapid Data Quality Review Tool and related resources, visit www.measureevaluation.org/resources/gend_gbv-rapid-data-quality-review-tool.

Community Event-Based Surveillance of Priority Human and Zoonotic Diseases in Senegal (La surveillance à base communautaire des maladies et zoonoses prioritaires au Sénégal)

Community Event-Based Surveillance of Priority Human and Zoonotic Diseases in Senegal: Suggestions for a Model One Health ProjectA United States Agency for International Development (USAID)–supported Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) activity for community event-based surveillance (CEBS) of zoonotic diseases with a One Health approach was launched in Senegal and implemented from September 2017 through June 2019. The activity was part of the USAID-supported MEASURE Evaluation Phase IV project under the GHSA Action 2 package. The activity focused on CEBS of eight prioritized infectious human and six zoonotic diseases in Senegal. This activity is a follow-on implementation of CEBS in four pilot districts (Tambacounda, Koumpentoum, Podor, and Pété) in two regions of Senegal.

The establishment of the pilot CEBS was accomplished by training community health volunteers to detect these diseases as soon as they occurred in their respective communities and to send text messages to the nearest health or veterinary post. The objective of the activity was early detection and response to limit the possibility of any large-scale outbreak of the disease.

The experience gained during this pilot forms the basis for recommendations for a model CEBS with a One Health approach for Senegal and perhaps other countries.

Access this resource in English or French.

Male Sexual Partners of Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Haiti: A Survey of HIV Risk Behavior, HIV Service Use, and Partner Violence

Male Sexual Partners of Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Haiti: A Survey of HIV Risk Behavior, HIV Service Use, and Partner ViolenceThe goal of this study was to support the achievement of the 95-95-95 targets of the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) by providing a robust understanding of HIV sexual risk behavior, HIV testing, and HIV treatment from the perspective of adult male sexual partners of adolescent girls and young women (AGYW). in Haiti. The research objectives were to:

  • Describe and identify modifiable determinants of HIV risk behavior and risky sexual partnerships.
  • Describe normative beliefs about HIV risk behavior, sexual partnerships, and HIV service use and their influence on personal HIV risk behavior.
  • Describe current HIV service use and preferences for HIV testing, determinants of HIV testing uptake, and, among HIV-positive participants, antiretroviral therapy treatment uptake and adherence.

Male sexual partners of AGYW are an important population to reach with effective HIV services in Haiti. The results of this study indicate a critical need to increase men’s knowledge of HIV treatment, access to condoms, and use of HIV testing services. Efforts to decrease physical and sexual violence and to better understand the role of equity in decision making with sexual partners are also needed. Additional research is warranted among HIV-positive men to understand how to link and retain them in care and to decrease the risk of transmission to their sexual partners.

HIV interventions in Haiti should use peer social norms to promote behaviors among men and should be tailored to their preferences by locating services in community settings and in places where men are more likely to socialize. HIV programs can effectively use social networks to reach high-risk heterosexual men and refer them to programs. Future studies to characterize the male partners of AGYW should consider using RDS to recruit participants.

Access this report. See a related research brief in English or French and a PowerPoint presentation.

Strengthening Community Event-Based Surveillance in Senegal

Strengthening Community Event- Based Surveillance in SenegalSince 2016, with the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), MEASURE Evaluation has assisted Senegal to set up a community event-based surveillance (CEBS) system to monitor the eight priority human diseases in four pilot districts. This system has enabled community stakeholders to identify diseases when they emerge in the community and to inform the nurse in charge of the area to enable rapid response to disease threats.

In 2017, MEASURE Evaluation revised the CEBS system to include Senegal’s six priority zoonotic diseases and adopt a “One Health”  approach that involves other non-traditional health sectors. The One Health approach focuses on multisectoral collaboration and information sharing among stakeholders at all levels. It also allows for rapid response to events —illnesses that emerge in the human-animal-environment interface—to prevent the spread of disease. This brief shares more (also available in French).

Measuring Outcomes among Children in Adverse Situations Indicators and Survey Tools

Measuring Outcomes among Children in Adverse Situations Indicators and Survey ToolsHousehold surveys, such as the Demographic and Health Survey and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, provide useful data on the vulnerabilities faced by children in the general population, but they often miss children who may be exposed to extreme adversity, such as children of female sex workers (FSWs), street children, and children working in mines. Globally, there are limited data on children living outside of traditional households, such as those living in the context of sex work or mining, or outside the care and protection of a primary caregiver, such as those living on the streets (Clay, et al., 2012). Service delivery organizations supporting these children also rarely share information and best practices in order to measure outcomes and performance.

Although research has shed some light on the vulnerabilities and needs of children living in such adverse situations, until now, no standardized indicators have been released to guide practitioners in measuring the extent of their risk to HIV. The goal of the Children in Adverse Situations Indicators and Survey Tools—available at https://www.measureevaluation.org/our-work/ovc/children-in-adverse-situations-indicators-and-survey-tools—is to answer the following question: “What improvements in well-being outcomes can be attributed to programs supporting children of FSWs, street children, and children working in mines?” The indicators and tools were specifically developed to expand the evidence base required by child welfare systems and programs in low- and middle-income countries to systematically reduce the vulnerability of these specific populations.

The Children in Adverse Situations Indicators and Survey Tools help countries or organizations assess and strengthen their information base on well-being outcomes of children in these populations. This suite consists of a holistic set of standardized outcome indicators and corresponding survey tools that have been deemed essential to ensuring more effective sharing of outcome data both in and between countries and programs and to expanding the evidence base of these invisible children to better understand their needs.