ICTs in Developing Countries: Research, practices and policy implications
Dey, Bidit; Sorour, Karim; and Raffaele Filieri. Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.
This book is a collection of conceptual and empirical works on the adoption and impacts of ICT (information and communications technology) use in developing societies. Featuring a wide range of contributors, it examines the digital divide and ICT for development both in terms of contextual information and disciplinary perspectives. Topics covered include mobile phone use in high-poverty areas, political microblogging, development and use of open-source software in India, and the impacts of ICT implementation on regulated financial services in Swaziland.
This document includes Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) raised by stakeholders involved in designing and implementing surveys to collect the PEPFAR Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting (MER) Orphan and Vulnerable Children (OVC) Essential Survey Indicators. MEASURE Evaluation has compiled answers to these questions and has produced this resource to enable the sharing of lessons learned across stakeholders.
Introduction to Global Health Promotion
Zimmerman, Rick S, Ralph J. Diclemente, Jon K. Andrus, and Everold N. Hosein (editors). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2016.
As their middle class populations grow, low and middle income countries are more likely to be burdened by non-communicable diseases like HIV, malaria, heart disease, smoking, and violence. This new text from the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) discusses global health promotion theories, best practices, and perspectives on the future of the field, from the individual to the global level. The 19 chapters update readers on the complexities surrounding these illnesses and epidemics and the individual, social, institutional, and governmental barriers to preventing them.
In 2011, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) published its Evaluation Policy (USAID, 2011). The policy emphasizes the need to conduct more evaluations of its programs to ensure greater accountability and learning, and it outlines best practices and requirements for conducting evaluations. Since releasing the policy, USAID has commissioned an increasing number of evaluations of its programs (USAID, 2016).
The importance of evaluations for international public health programs has been long recognized (CDC, 1999, 2011; RAND, 2005; WHO, 2001), with demand for such evaluations coming from both internal and external sources. Donors or those external to program implementation seek evidence of accomplishments and accountability for resources spent, whereas those involved in program implementation seek evidence to inform and improve program design (WHO, 2001). Within USAID, the need for more evaluations was driven by the understanding that evaluations provide information and analysis that prevent mistakes from being repeated and increase the likelihood of greater yield from future investments (USAID, 2011). Finally, there is overall recognition that evaluations should be of high quality and driven by demand, and that results should be communicated to relevant stakeholders (PEPFAR, 2014).
Despite the increased demand for evaluations, there is limited evaluation capacity in many countries where international development programs are implemented (RAND, 2005). Before strategies to strengthen evaluation capacity can be implemented, it is important first to assess existing evaluation capacity and develop action plans accordingly.
We conducted a review of existing assessment tools and guidance documents related to assessing organizations’ capacity to carry out evaluations of international public health programs in order to determine the adequacy of those materials. Here, we summarize the key findings of our review of the literature and provide recommendations for the development of future tools and guidance documents.
This guideline describes a team-based, learn-by-doing process designed to help health districts assess constraints on HIV service delivery and to plan, conduct, and monitor strategic interventions. The steps in this process help districts:
- Analyze local data
- Identify priority subdistrict areas that are burdened by disease
- Design interventions to overcome constraints and strengthen performance
This process works best with low-profile facilitation by staff or consultants experienced in team-based learning and the use of locally available data. National health administrations, lead institutions, and collaborative projects can also adapt the process to meet national and local needs.
The goals of this process are:
- To provide a practical opportunity for district health teams (national service and implementing partner [IP] project staff) to analyze routine and periodic HIV data that are available to their service facilities and offices, in order to identify current service gaps and their underlying causes
- To inform national programs and institutions of learning that support HIV service monitoring and improvement while building health team capacity for data analysis and use
- To foster the establishment of national institutional homes for leading and supporting such data use on a continuing and expanding basis
- To help the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) institutionalize the use of DATIM (Data for Accountability, Transparency, and Impact) indicators for monitoring and managing HIV strategies, such as 90-90-90 and DREAMS (Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored, and Safe), and of priority services of the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) at the service site and district level
- To encourage national district health services to focus on areas with highest HIV prevalence and transmission rates, especially underserved communities
USAID officials have asked MEASURE Evaluation to shorten the process and focus district team attention on HIV services. This abbreviated process will support the assembly and analysis of diverse types and sources of data in order to identify service gaps and determine their underlying causes. The procedure covers the design of interventions to address service gaps in subdistrict areas that most need assistance to reduce HIV transmission and to improve identification and management of HIV cases (as in the 90-90-90 strategy).
The Economics of the Global Response to HIV/AIDS
Haacker, Markus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.
This book illustrates the devastating health impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the success of the global response to reversing the extreme drop in life expectancy in some countries. Concerns about the implications of HIV/AIDS for economic development have played a role in motivating the global response to the epidemic, but those concerns are now overblown because HIV/AIDS has effectively transitioned into a chronic disease, absorbing a substantial chunk of global financial resources over decades. The book presents a framework for integrating these financial consequences and the transmission dynamics of HIV in the analysis of cost-effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions and in the design of HIV/AIDS programs.
À la demande de l’équipe chargée de la lutte contre la maladie à virus Ébola de Global Health de l’Agence américaine pour le développement international (USAID), le projet MEASURE Evaluation a fourni une assistance technique au Ministère de la santé de la Côte d’Ivoire aux fins de renforcer le système d’alerte précoce du Système de surveillance épidémiologique des maladies à tendance épidémique et nouvelles du pays. Cette mission a été accomplie en collaboration avec l’Institut national d’hygiène publique (INHP), qui avait identifié l’intégration des données communautaire dans le système de surveillance épidémiologique comme une priorité nationale.